GOV. JINDAL BREAKS SILENCE ON
In the immediate aftermath of Thursday's shooting at Grand 16 Theatre in Lafayette, Gov. Bobby Jindal and other state officials deferred questions of gun laws in favor of focusing on the victims and their lives cut short.
Jindal broke his silence on the matter Sunday morning.
In an interview with CBS's "Face the Nation," the presidential hopeful called for stronger gun laws in every state.
“Every state should make sure this information is being reported in the background system," he said. "We need to make sure that background system is working. Absolutely, in this instance, this man never should have been able to buy a gun.”
The Advertiser Includes this Article from the New York Times:
BOBBY JINDAL CALLS FOR STATES TO FOLLOW LA.S EXAMPLE IN TOUGHENING GUN LAWS.
Gov. Bobby Jindal of Louisiana called for tougher gun laws in other states on Sunday, breaking his silence on the issue three days after a gunman with a history of mental illness and violence opened fire in a movie theater in the state’s fourth-largest city.
Gun control has become a prominent subject on the presidential campaign trail after the shooting on Thursday in Lafayette became the third mass shooting in six weeks in the United States. Mr. Jindal, who received an A-plus rating from the National Rifle Association, is one of 16 candidates seeking the Republican nomination for 2016.
Law enforcement authorities are investigating how the gunman in last week’s attack, identified as John R. Houser, 59, was able to walk into an Alabama pawnshop and legally buy the Hi-Point .40-caliber handgun he used to kill two women and injure nine other people before killing himself at the Grand 16 Theater. A motive for the shooting has not been determined.
Until Sunday, Mr. Jindal and most of his Republican rivals had deflected questions in recent days over whether the killings reflected a need for tighter gun control laws. On CBS’s “Face the Nation,” Mr. Jindal called for states to adopt laws similar to Louisiana’s that feed information about mental illness into a federal background check system for potential gun buyers.
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“I think every state should strengthen their laws,” he said. “Every state should make sure this information is being reported in the background system. We need to make sure that background system is working. Absolutely, in this instance, this man never should have been able to buy a gun.”
Officials have said Mr. Houser, of Phenix City, Ala., legally bought the weapon there in 2014, although he had been denied a state-issued concealed weapons permit in 2006 because he was accused of domestic violence and soliciting arson. His family repeatedly described him as violent and mentally ill, and questions about his mental health had been raised for decades. In 2008, his family had him involuntarily committed to a hospital in Georgia to receive psychiatric care.
Mr. Jindal insisted that Louisiana laws would have prevented Mr. Houser from buying a gun.
“In Louisiana, we toughened our laws a couple of years ago,” Mr. Jindal said. “If he had been involuntarily committed here, if he had tried to buy that gun here, he wouldn’t have been allowed to do that.”
He added: “Look, every time this happens, it seems like the person has a history of mental illness. We need to make sure the systems we have in place actually work.”
Mr. Jindal said investigators had interviewed Mr. Houser’s family and were examining journals found in his hotel room in which he described his intention to carry out a shooting in the theater. The authorities believe Mr. Houser went to multiple theaters in southern Louisiana before picking the one in Lafayette, the governor said.
The investigators also believe that Mr. Houser intended to escape. He parked his car near the theater’s exit, and had a wig and disguises in his car and hotel room, Mr. Jindal said.
“They continue to try to piece together why he came here and why he chose Thursday night to disrupt these innocent people’s lives,” Mr. Jindal said. “We may never have the answers to all of those questions, though.”
In an interview with KFLY, a local television station, Col. Michael D. Edmonson, the superintendent of the State Police, said investigators were piecing together all the available evidence to try to answer, “What made him snap?”
Friends and family of one of the victims, Mayci Breaux, 21, gathered at Ibert’s Mortuary on Sunday for a visitation and a saying of the rosary. A Roman Catholic funeral service for her was scheduled for Monday at the Church of the Assumption in Franklin, La., the mortuary said in an online obituary.
Ms. Breaux and Jillian E. Johnson, 33, were killed during the previews before a showing of the movie “Trainwreck.” Ms. Breaux was enrolled at Louisiana State University at Eunice, where she was studying to become an ultrasound and radiology technician, according to the obituary.
Mr. Houser shot Ms. Breaux first, then turned to her boyfriend, Matthew Rodriguez, who was wounded in the attack, Colonel Edmonson told KFLY.
Funeral arrangements for Ms. Johnson, a musician who owned two gift shops with her husband, had not been announced on Sunday.
In a series of messages on Twitter, the Westboro Baptist Church indicated that some of its members would picket the funerals. The ultraconservative church, which is based in Topeka, Kan., has gained notoriety for its staunch anti-gay stance and for a series of protests, including at the funerals of American military service members killed in war.
Mr. Houser had expressed admiration on Twitter for Westboro Baptist, which likened the theater shooting and recent ones at two military centers in Chattanooga, Tenn., and a historic black church in Charleston, S.C., to the wrath of God.
Mr. Jindal issued an executive order on Saturday directing the police to enforce state laws against protests disturbing the peace at funerals. On “Face the Nation,” he said Westboro protesters would face arrest if they tried to disrupt the funerals for the Lafayette victims.
“They shouldn’t try that in Louisiana,” he said. “We won’t abide by that here. Let these families grieve. Let them celebrate their daughters, their children, their spouses, their loved ones’ lives in peace. They better not try that nonsense here.”
The American Civil Liberties Union issued a statement on Sunday questioning the governor’s response to the threat of protesters. The organization said Mr. Jindal’s plan was “misguided and has the potential to be used to infringe on protesters’ First Amendment rights.”
More than 16,000 people have signed up on Facebook for a counterprotest to form a human wall between the anticipated Westboro protesters and the funeral procession.
From the New York Times and in the Lafayette Advertiser 7/28/2015.
From the Lafayette Gazette of August 28th, 1897:
But He Was Not a Preacher And Was arrested for Disturbing a Peaceable Assembly. - Clarence Mercereaux Makes a Statement and Says He Was in Earnest.
Clarence Mercereaux is the name of the gentleman who went to Indian Bayou on the 11th of July last and acted in a manner not at all pleasing to the Methodist congregation at the place. It appears that Mercereaux represented himself as a minister to the Rev. Mr. Bogan and to the good people of that community. Mr. Bogan, not having any reason to question the truthfulness of Mercereaux' story and little suspecting that he was an imposter, extended to him the right hand of fellowship and bade him a hearty welcome. Mr. Bogan is a very kindly disposed gentleman and he naturally treated his guest with the genuine hospitality for which he is deservedly known. But when the time cam to preach the alleged minister was tried and found wanting. His sermon was widely at variance with what the congregation expected of him. At times it was profoundly dramatic, and his delivery bore a striking resemblance to that of the "cow boy preacher," and the manner in which he stamped the floor and pounced on the table signally failed to impress his audience with the fact that he was seriously engaged in the noble calling of showing to repentant sinners the right of way of eternal happiness. So firmly convinced that they that Mercereaux was not a regularly ordained minister he was no longer allowed to enjoy the privileges of the clergy.
The members of the Indian Bayou you church at once took the necessary measures to have Mercereaux arrested for the imposition that he had practiced upon them.
Sheriff Broussard went to Acadia parish Monday night and came back with Merceraux who was placed in jail.
A gentleman from Acadia offered to act as his bondsman, but as he had no property in this parish his services were not accepted.
The Gazette man called upon Mercereaux and asked him if he had any statement to make for publication. He replied that he was somewhat of a writer himself, and if permitted, would re-write his own story in thyme and prose. He was given a lead pencil and paper and if permitted, would write his own story in rhyme and prose. He was given a lead pencil and paper and a few hours later he sent The Gazette the following:
LORD, SET ME FREE.
Is it a crime that I have done,
That they have placed me here,
Hidden from the smiling;
But yet I know my God is near.
Precious Lord, knowest thou
That I am suffering pain for thee ?
Smile upon me this lonely hour;
Come, Oh! Come and set me free.
Take me where the summer breeze
Once more can smile on me.
Tide me o'er the raging seas,
Oh, precious Lord, and set me free.
"Believing in the callings of the spirit, the teachings of the divine code and all that all men are born into this world equal, and should rise to a higher and nobler standard of usefulness by their own exertions, and believing my vocation a sacred one, I went forth into this unkind world to expound the Gospel of the living Gospel of the living God to the best of my spiritual knowledge, always following the dictates of the holy spirit. I arrived at the town of Lafayette on the 11th of July and met Mr. Foote. Although Mr. Foote acknowledged to me that he was a member of no church, he seemed to be religiously inclined and a very social gentleman. He asked me to go to and attend the protracted meeting at Indian Bayou which was being held there at that time. Mr. Foote told me that they were in want of ministerial help and I cheerfully responded to the call. I boarded the train and proceeded to the town of Rayne, where I secured a conveyance to the Indian Bayou church, where I stopped with the Rev. Bro. Bogan, the pastor in charge. Bro. Bogan asked me to preach on the following night. I had no time to prepare for the occasion and was very much fatigued, having traveled a good distance. He would not excuse me (and although vary reluctant) I agreed to do my best, which I did. On the following morning Bro. Bogan apprised me of the fact as Bro. Reims from Lafayette would be with him and as they could not support more ministers than those expected, I took my departure and went into Acadia parish where I was taking a rest and recuperating when the Lafayette sheriff found me. It is needless to what followed as the sheriff was armed with a warrant for my arrest, charging me with disturbing the peace at the Indian Bayou church on the 11th of July, and now I am incarcerated in the Lafayette jail to await the action of the grand jury, I was unable to give bond as my friends resided in the adjoining parish of Acadia and would not be accepted as bondsman. In conclusion I wish to say in regard to Mr. Lee Foote's statement as to my being a blackleg gambler, that I have never seen Mr. Foote before that memorable evening, and furthermore I never played a game of cards or any other gambling game in my life.
" C. M. MERCEREAUX."
Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
By Sheriffs Boussard, Rees and Hebert Results in the Capture of Saloom's Murderer.
The man, or one of the men, believed to be responsible for the foul murder of the Syrian peddler, John Saloom, is in the St. Martin jail. His capture was the result of some very clever work by Sheriff Broussard ably assisted by Sheriffs Rees of St. Martin and Hebert of Vermilion.
Saloom was found dead on a public road not far from Duchamps's station, in St. Martin parish, about two weeks ago, with a bullet-hole through the head. The motive for the crime was evidently robbery.
Being asked by the friends and relatives of the murdered man to help ferret out the crime, Sheriff Broussard went to St. Martin and joined Sheriff Rees and both officers immediately set to work on the case, which, at first, seemed enveloped in mystery. There was apparently no clue to the deed, but the officers searched the neighborhood thoroughly and they were compensated for their work by the discovery of one fact which finally led them to conclude that the negro, Joe Dalis, was connected with the commission of the murder. He had previously borne an enviable reputation and his appearance in the neighborhood on the day of the killing coupled with the fact that he was seen moving away very rapidly, aroused the suspicions of the officers, and they at once began to work for his capture. After securing the adjoining country they located him in Vermilion parish and informed Sheriff Hebert of the matter. Saturday afternoon that vigilant officer telephoned Sheriff Broussard that he had captured his man. Sheriff Broussard immediately went to Abbeville on the train and returned during the night in a carriage with Dalis in custody. Sheriff Rees came to Lafayette the next day and conveyed his prisoner to St. Martinville where he will be tried.
Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
Prof. Greig's School.
To The Lafayette Gazette.
Please announce that school will open next Wednesday, Sept. 1, and all patrons are requested to enter pupils on that day as this will materially aid in the formation of classes, etc. It is the purpose to maintain a thoroughly reliable home institution for all grades, including advanced studies. The primary work will be conducted along Kindergarten lines, and if support justifies the complete system will be inaugurated. With ample facilities including comfortable rooms, necessary appurtenances, a large and shady play ground and quiet location, superior advantages are offered. Friends and patrons are cordially invited to call and inspect the school premises.
R. C. GREIG.
Laf. Gazette 8/28/1897.
Lafayette Negroes Fight. - Baptiste Domingue and John Key, two young negroes from this town, who have been employed in Mr. Kalckstein's Crosby House at Beaumont, Tex., became involved in a difficulty last Saturday resulting in the death of Key. It appears that they clinched and that Key had the advantage over his antagonist, Domingue, who kicked him somewhere above the abdomen causing almost instant death. Dominge was arrested and placed in jail. Domingue had lived in this town until a few months ago when he moved to Beaumont. He is said to have always been a quiet and industrious young negro of steady and sober habits. Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
Negro Killed. - An unknown negro was killed by a train near Gerac's gin last Monday night. His body was found with both legs cut off and badly mangled. The dead man is believed to have been from Crowley.
Laf. Gazette 8/28/1897.
Proves a Brilliant Success.
One Whole Day of Amusements with Eight Hundred People Present.
The first annual entertainment of the Century Club was an eminently successful affair. The members of the club could not hope for a finer day and a more orderly crowd of people. All the seats on the grand stand were taken and quite a number of men were compelled to stand up while several ladies remained in their carriages. Among those present there were people from all the neighboring towns and parishes. The management at the park reflected much credit upon the grand marshal, Mr. Wm. Campbell, and his assistants. All the amusements were carried out according to the announcement on the program. The base ball games were very amusing and elicited much good-natured laughter from the crowd.
The boys looked slightly embarrassed in their Mother Hubbards while the Hayseeds reminded one of the proverbial Reuben. Lee Walker and Don Greig bore a striking resemblance to the witches in Macbeth, while Ed McBride and Paul Castel ore their skirts with unusual grace. It is worthy of note that Carencro covered itself with glory. It won the base ball game, the fat men's race and the ball-throwing contest, to say nothing of Col. C. C. Brown catching "flies" on second base with his palmetto fan and umbrella, and Mayor Dimitry's swift running.
The following is the result of the various races and contests:
Bicycle race, one mile, open. Gilbert Bonin, Alley Sprole, Gaston Veazey. In this race Sprole and Veazey were thrown from their wheels. Bonin won the prize, a silver medal.
Bicycle race, half mile, novice. Hugh Wallis, George Pefferkorn, Armand Deffez. Won by Wallis ; silver prize, silver medal.
Boys' foot race, 100 yards. Rene Delhomme, Harry Church, Rosemond Olivier. Won by Delhomme ; prize, a silver medal.
Foot race for the championship of the Attakapas, 100 yards. Sterling Mudd, Charles Parkerson, Geo. Melchoir. Won by Sterling Mudd. The winner was presented with a beautiful exquisitely engraved. A considerable amount of cash changed hands on the result of this race.
Mule race, half mile. Elliot's Bicycle Girl, Girard's Glass-eye, Clegg's Closing Up, Given's Klondyke, Vandercruyssen's Printer's Ink, Judice's Satisfaction. Won by Dr. Girard.
Pony race, half mile. Dr. Girard;s Ben Hur, Parkerson's Rabbit Foot, Nickerson's Billy Boy, Elliot's Bragger, Hebert's Pet. Hebert was the winner.
Fat men's race, 100 yards. Louis Stelly, Simeon Begnaud, Adolphe Prejean, C. C. Brown, Omer Broussard. Stelly was any easy winner. A handsome medal was given to the victor.
Throwing a base ball. Sterling Mudd, Luke Olivier, Mr. Franez, Don Greig, Dr. Perrault. Francez won the prize, a bat and ball.
Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
A Woodmen of the World Camp.
Prof. C. A. Ives, for many years a teacher in the Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge, was in Lafayette this week, looking towards the organization here of a camp of the Woodmen of the World, a fraternity, which though organized in 1890, has enjoyed almost unparalleled growth since its incipiency.
Mr. Ives will be in Lafayette next week and will take pleasure in explaining the objects of this fraternal order. Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
Negro Supremacy. It seems fashionable among a certain class of newspapers and politicians to ridicule the idea of negro supremacy which they are pleased to call a "spook." The Gazette agrees with its contemporary, the Baton Rouge Advocate, that so long as the negroes remain a political factor those who believe that as long as the negroes remain a political factor those who believe in Caucasian government should not allow themselves to be deluded by the "spook" business.
Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
THEN AND NOW.
In the municipal election of 1893 the Vigneaux ticket was returned elected. The opposing ticket charged fraud, instituted a contest and asked for an investigation by the courts.
The Vigneaux ticket, through its attorney, immediately proceeded to take steps to prevent the case from being tried on its merits.
The Vigneaux ticket, through its attorneys, immediately proceeded to take steps to prevent the case from being tried on its merits.
It did not a trial. As is usually done the lawyers had recourse to technicalities and the contestants were denied an opportunity to show that they had been fraudulently deprived of their rights. It claimed that the court had no jurisdiction and its claim was maintained. The case was dismissed.
Last May this little bit of municipal history repeated itself. But this time the boot was on the other leg.
The People's Ticket, which was nominated by the same element that supported the Vigneaux ticket in 1893, failed to be elected, and the Democrats, who were denied a trial in 1893, were victorious.
This year it is the turn of the People's ticket on the Vigneaux party to contest. They cry fraud and they tell us that they want the "search-light of judicial scrutiny thrown upon the whole matter."
The same means which they employed in 1893 to evade a judicial investigation are used by the Democrats in 1897, and it is to this that the supporters of the People's ticket object.
In 1893 they denied their opponents a plain judicial investigation and in 1897 they have the unqualified gall to prate about "the searchlight of judicial scrutiny."
Four years ago they used every quibble and technicality because they were in office and did not care a continental for the rights of others, and to-day they have the superlative nerve to assume a sort of bogus party purity and pretend to want a "fair and full investigation of the matter."
The whole thing in a nut-shell is that the Democrats are using almost the identical means employed by their opponents in 1893, and the pretensions of the People's ticket are the veriest rot. They are made for political effect and will deceive no one.
The sudden conversion of our friends is enough to make the very angels weep. Had they gone through the ordinary process of evolution before attaining such ethereal sanctity the mind would be able to grasp the metamorphosis, but such an instantaneous transformation is beyond the ken of the ordinary mortal. Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
COME DOWN, BROTHER.
The editor of the Mason City (la.) Republican is a malevolent ass as will be seen from the following editorial which appeared in his paper:
The woman who takes her life into her own hands (not in danger from the negroes) and goes down to live in the south to teach the colored people how to read and write, to prepare proper meals, to be tidy in dress and industrious in habits, has no idea of upsetting the social condition of that section. She should be met with a cordial welcome by the whites of the place in which she labors. She does not come to enter into the social rounds of the balls, receptions, and afternoon teas, lawn parties and the like and does not expect it. She ought, however, in a civilized community to be treated as a lady. No word of reproach should be put upon her in public or private. She is sacrificing home and friends in her love to mankind in a desire to uplift the poor and downtrodden, and yet to the shame of white people of the community in which she works, she is treated as an outcast, a person to be insulted if opportunity offers. But after all, it is no wonder what that people who have advanced so little in true Christian civilization should have a natural aversion to things pure, high-minded, self sacrificing and Godly in ambition.
If the editor of the Republican has such an undying love for the negroes, The Gazette will advise him to sell his print shop and come down to Louisiana and engage in philanthropic work of teaching juvenile coons "to be tidy in dress and industrious in habits." He should also take along his wife and daughters, who, having "advanced so far in true Christian civilization" as not to have a "natural aversion to things pure, high-minded and self-sacrificing," will be able to join in in the work of uplifting the colored race. They will have a sweet and odorous time of it, preparing proper meals for negroes, but such aesthetic folks will hardly object to it. Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
Davidson Back In Town. - J. J. Davidson, the Southern Pacific agent at this point, returned Tuesday night from Mystic, Calcasieu parish, where he was summoned by the death of his brother, Mr. J. T. Davidson who died at that place on the 21st of August. The deceased was 48 years of age and leaves a wife and one child. Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
Recovered From Wounds. - Thoephile Guidry who was stabbed by "Bee" Roche at a ball last Saturday night has about recovered from the wounds which he sustained in the fight. Roche surrendered to Sheriff Broussard Sunday and was placed in the parish jail, but he has applied for bail through his attorney, Wm. Campbell. L
Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
School Building. - Prof. Greig has just completed a neat and comfortable building designed expressly for school purposes. Due regard has been paid to hygienic principles and the structure is not only and ornament to the town, but stands a model of excellence for its peculiar purpose. Improved school furniture will be installed and the school equipped for efficient work. Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1879.
Gives Up Base-ball. - Jimmie Marsh requested The Gazette to state that he will not play base ball any more for love or money. He was forced to that conclusion by the series of accidents which he as been the victim since the opening of the base ball season.
Lafayette Gazette 8/18/1897.
Selected News Notes (Gazette) 8/28/1897.
J. A. Andrus and J. W. Armstrong were at work this week leveling the ground preparatory to laying the pipes for the waterworks.
Mayor Caffery left Thursday night for New Orleans to attend to some business connected with the waterworks contract.
J. G. St. Julien has built a large and commodious dwelling on his plantation near Broussardville. The work was done by the carpenter, Mr. Key.
Prof. Robert Cunningham, who will have a charge of the Lafayette public school during the approaching session, was in town Sunday last.
Dr. Paul L. Caillouet, of Lockport, Lafourche parish, will move to this town by the first of the next month to open a dental office.
The Florence wagon is the best and cheapest on the market. Call at Moss & Mouton Lumber Yard and inspect the assortment on hand.
Charles Lusted, Sr., returned last Saturday from England where he had gone to visit his mother and to see the country of his birth. Mr. Lusted was greeted by his numerous friends in Lafayette.
The schools of the Mount Carmel Convent for boys and girls will open on the first Monday of September.
Lafayette Gazette 8/28/1897.
From the Lafayette Advertiser of August 28th, 1869:
Our Crops. -We have witnessed this week and during the past week, the energetic and universal preparations made by all our planters to make ready for securing the coming crop. Baskets and sacks have been and are now being bought every day, en fin cotton picking has begun in good earnest and withal, but few caterpillars up to date, and these we feel confident, cannot now do much harm. We must triumphantly say that our good planters, the weather aiding and abetting have stolen a most happy march on the grand army and will even with their late coming realize abundant crops. Lafayette Advertiser 8/28/1869.
Strict Enforcement. - We are no less pleased at the energy and zeal displayed by our Town Constable and his Deputy in the strict enforcement of all our Town regulations, than we are sadly grieved to hear the different complaints made by citizens against the energetic course pursued by the above named officials. The Town Council is by charter, both the old and amendment thereto, invested with the plenary power to pass such ordinances as the members thereof may deem proper and conducive to the general welfare. Those ordinances they have passed, and despite the grumbling and dissatisfaction, they intend to carry out, to their very letter and spirit, and without favor or fear of any one. The Town Council is a legally constituted body or it is not, its ordinances are strictly in accordance with the provisions of the Town Charter or they are not; in case of doubt or grievance on the part of any one, on the aforesaid points we would be happy to see all the questions tested by superior tribunal, but not hear the members abused or ill-treated, at the street corners and upon the public side walk; there is no remedy in such a course; and besides the town council, we are satisfied, mean well, intend to do nothing but what they consider to be conscientiously right and just ; but this they will enforce with vigor. Lafayette Advertiser 8/28/1869.
Lafayette Parish News Notes:
We have been shown two stalks of corn, one coming from the field of F. Martin and the other from that of Z. Doucet - thrifty planters of our Parish. The former stalk has six full grown and well matured ears and the other seven. Pretty prolific country this of our Western Parishes!
Gen. D. H. Maury, the noble defender of Mobile, now a resident of the Crescent city passed through our Town this week. He is a Southern agent for the Piedmont Mutual Life Insurance Company, central office in Richmond, Virginia. We are happy to meet the general in fine health, he is going as far as Washington and thence return to the city, we wish him a happy trip and a pleasant sojourn in our western country.
Mr. J. Bordeau has opened his picture Gallery in our Town over the shop of Mr. Ledger. Persons wishing Photographs, Ambrotypes, Gems, etc., would do themselves well to avail themselves of his short stay in our midst.
Persons desiring to purchase Dry Goods of superior quality, at cheap rates should give L. E. Salles a call before purchasing any where else, as he is now selling out at cost price.
We call the attention of the public to the fact that Mr. J. M. Woodward has on hand for sale, and at the most reduced prices, a lot of lumber and lime near the store of Mr. Clemille Trahan, on the Bayou Vermilion. At all times Mr. Woodward or his agent will be found at the yard ready to accommodate the public.
Lafayette Advertiser 8/28/1869.
On the Roof of the World.
Colonel H. C. Tanner of the Indian staff corps has seen a great deal of the Himalayas during survey work, distinguishes four types of avalanche among them. The first and commonest is simply the sliding mass of new snow on the steep slopes, and is frequent in winter or spring. The second type is a rush of old snow, detached by the heat of the sun, and it occurs in summer or autumn, when, from its suddenness, it is dangerous to travelers, who ought to pitch their camps out of the way. The third type occurs in mountains of peculiar formation, and is a mixture of ice and snow dislodged by the broken end of a glacier projecting over the crests of ridges or cliffs. The fourth type has only been seen by Colonel Tanner once, and seems never to have been described by other observers.
Hunting an ibex one day in an elevated valley of the Gilgit-Darel Mountains, he saw to his surprise what appeared to be millions of snowballs rolling down the bed of a torrent in a stream a mile and a half long. The balsa were about the size of a man's head and rolled over each other. Colonel Tanner offers no theory of their formation, but the bed of the torrent filled with old balls, proving that other avalanches of the sort had occurred there.
In the Sat valley, which drains the southern face of the Rakaposhi Mountain, in Gilgit, there are three immense glaciers, one of which has an island covered with pine trees and bushes, on its surface and higher up a lake or tarn of deep blue-green water. Pinnacles, wedges blocks and needles of ice, some supporting great boulders, add to the weird beauty of the glacier. We may add that Colonel Tanner found the snow line of the Himalayas to vary in altitude, and recommends that explorers in ascertaining this limit should measure the altitude of those flat open spaces on which the snow lies where it falls, and not go by snow fields, which may be drifts, or in the shade.
From the London Globe and in the Lafayette Advertiser 8/29/1891.